No. Chrome OS was announced long before iCloud, and has been under development for years. I believe that Chrome OS was announced and demonstrated back in 2008 or 2009, and iCloud was just announced a few weeks ago.
Google Docs, Calendar, Picasa have been doing cloud sync for ages (by tech standards). Apple is just trying to catch up. Music is doing the same thing. I've been using Music for two weeks now and love it. Any music I put in my folder gets picked up and uploaded to my music account automatically. It's sent to the cloud where I can listen to them on any device anytime. I've been playing stuff on my iPad over Safari... it's a little buggy but works. Wish I had an android tablet... Music is almost enough to convince me to switch.
In other words, while the Chromebook concept was being developed Apple went ahead to quickly launch the iCloud concept? I am starting to believe that one would need both an Android tablet and Chromebook?
CEO of Google at the time Schmitt worked at Novell where he worked on Cloud based computing as a CEO there. He loved the idea of a basic window terminal with all the data and applications stored remotely. It was less of a Chrome OS vision and more of a Citrix system.
After going to Google he saw the invention of Chrome and the freeing of bandwidth for home users...with that Chrome OS was born and backed by him HARD. Serg and them where much more in the Android mind set.
There idea of Data in the cloud isn't new but it is the first I have seen it pushed to consumers and it is great. Now if it catches on will have to been seen. All I know is where I live (Orlando) is about to see a ton of this...the City of Orlando is moving there systems to Chromebooks and Citrix for Office. This creates a truly safe environment from a backing up and virus stand point...
Apple's iCloud is more of a cloud sync solution, even though they never use "sync" in their descriptions. Just about everything they have involves downloading things to your Mac or iDevice. With Google's approach, you keep most things in the cloud.